Men with Testosterone deficiency tend to have a portfolio of cardiac risk factors that include Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. Testosterone deficiency increases the risk of Cardiovascular disease and the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Many of the key symptoms of low Testosterone are sexual in nature, including erectile dysfunction, loss of night-time erections and reduced libido. Many men with heart disease also have erectile dysfunction and that dysfunction is often made worse by some of the medications that are used to treat cardiovascular disease. Many studies in the medical literature have linked testosterone deficiency with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and early mortality. Further, men who have chronic heart failure and Testosterone deficiency have a poor prognosis, more frequent hospitalizations and increased mortality when compared to those men who have higher Testosterone levels. In men with Testosterone deficiency, Testosterone replacement has been shown to have the beneficial effects of improved exercise capacity, improvement of heart oxygenation, and improvement in coronary artery disease. Reductions in Body Mass Index and Waist circumference and improvements in blood sugar control and lipid profiles are often seen in men who are receiving Testosterone therapy. There are more than 100 studies showing cardiovascular benefits or improved cardiovascular risk factors with Testosterone therapy. For the most part, studies that show increased cardiac risk and mortality are flawed retrospective (looking backward) studies that have very little corroboration with other better performed studies and are generally regarded as irrelevant, yet they carry too much weight among less informed physicians and the general public who often lack the understanding to discern the flaws in these studies.